Referendum of 1983 (Constitutional Reform)
The referendum of 1983 was held for citizens to vote on a series of reforms to the 1972 constitution. The purpose of the reform was to allow the direct election of the president, readmission of political parties, introduction of checks and balances and implementation of referendums to decide on future constitutional reforms. The turnout in the referendum was 66.75%. 87.77% of the participants voted in favor of the reforms, thus, they were approved.
Formalization: is the innovation embedded in the constitution or legislation, in an administrative act, or not formalized at all?
Frequency: how often does the innovation take place: only once, sporadically, or is it permanent or regular?
Mode of Selection of Participants: is the innovation open to all participants, access is restricted to some kind of condition, or both methods apply?
Type of participants: those who participate are individual citizens, civil society organizations, private stakeholders or a combination of those?
Decisiveness: does the innovation takes binding, non-binding or no decision at all?
Co-governance: is there involvement of the government in the process or not?
- embedded in the constitution/legislation
- Mode of selection of participants
- Type of participants
- democratic innovation yields a binding decision